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OCR Religious Studies Revision Guide H573 1/2/3

The Peped Revision Guide for OCR H573 1/2/3 is designed to help GCE A level students ask the right questions by unpacking key issues and linkages according to structures of thought, and by doing the exercises, to build essay-writing skills step by step.

Detailed evaluation helps build the critical sense and the book comes with its own website of additional material, peped.org.

An essential book for those who wish to be liberated to think philosophically, with rigour and flexibility.


Product details

Format: Softcover Book
Size: 8.5″ x 11″ (21.59 x 27.94 cm)
Paper: Black & White on White paper
Pages: 258

For bulk orders over 30 items please contact sales@peped.org directly

Full Contents Breakdown

Table of Contents 1

Philosophical Language and Thought
The Allegory of the Cave
The Symbols of the Allegory
The Theory of FORMs
Four Causes – A Teleological Worldview
Prime Mover
Arguments for the Prime Mover
Characteristics of the Prime Mover
Key Confusions – Plato & Aristotle
Soul, Mind and Body
Platonic Dualism
In Phaedrus
In Republic
In Phaedo
Cartesian Dualism
Aristotelian Monism
Identity theory
Arguments for the Existence of God – Reason
The Ontological Argument
Anselm’s First & Second Version
Proslogion Chapter 1: Dealing with the Fool
Proslogion Chapter 2: Ontological Argument Version 1
Proslogion Chapter 3: Ontological Argument Version 2
Gaunilo’s Response
Arguments from Experience
The Cosmological Argument
Aquinas’ First, Second and Third Way
Hume’s Challenges
The Teleological Argument
Aquinas & Paley
Hume’s Challenges
God and the World
The Case for Religious Experience
Classical Characteristics of Religious Experiences
1. Voices
2. Visions
Contemporary Characteristics of Religious Experiences
1. William James’ Varieties (Acronym PINT)
2. Richard Swinburne’s Direct or Indirect Distinction
3. Veridicalness (provable truthfulness) of Religious Experience
The Case against Religious Experience
Psychological Neurosis – the Case Against Religious Experience
Physiological Influences – the case against Religious Experience
Sociological Influences – the Case Against Religious Experience
The Problem of Evil
The Problem of Evil and Suffering
The Inconsistent Triad
John Stuart Mill’s Evil Nature
J.L. Mackie and H.L. McCloskey’s Logical Problem of Evil
Natural and Moral Evils
The Theodicies
Evil as Privation
The Fall of Adam and Eve
Natural Evil
The Eschatological Question
Irenaean Theodicy
Hick’s Variation of Irenaeus’ Theodicy
Nature of God
Biblical Revelation
Greek Philosophical Thought
Interpretations of Omnipotence
Benevolence & Human Suffering
The Existence of Hell
The Existence of Miracles
Definition of Omniscience
Limited Knowledge
Unlimited knowledge
Free Will
Eternity as Timelessness
Eternity as Everlasting
Classical Religious Language
The Apophatic Way
Moses Maimonides
Teresa of Avila
The Cataphatic Way 1 – Analogy
The Need for Analogy
Analogy of Attribution
Analogy of Proper Proportion
The Cataphatic Way 2 – Symbolism
What are signs and symbols?
Paul Tillich on Signs and Symbols
The use of Symbols in Scripture and Religious Language
Symbols within Christian Tradition
Lamb of God
Religious Language – 20th Century Challenges
Logical Positivism & Verificationism
The Principle of Verification
Challenges and Adaptations of Verificationism
Strong and Weak Verification
Verification in Practice and Principle
Direct and Indirect Verification
Language Games
Falsification – Anthony Flew and Karl Popper
Flew’s Falsification

Table of Contents 2

Popper’s Falsification
Bliks and Philosophical Parables
Hare’s Bliks
Falsification Parables
Parable of the Explorers
Toys in the Cupboard
The Ethics Paper H573/2
Introduction to Ethics
Normative Ethics
Applied Ethics
Four Questions to Ask of Ethical Theories
Natural Law
Aquinas’ Argument
Primary Precepts
The Four Laws
Apparent Goods
Two Goods in Conflict
Confusions – Natural Law
Kantian Ethics
Good Will
Categorical Imperative (C.I.)
C.I. 1 The Formula of Law
C.I. 2 Formula of Ends
C.I. 3 Formula of Autonomy
Summum Bonum
Three Postulates
Confusions – Kant
Key Essay Ideas
Bentham’s Act Utilitarianism
Quantitative Pleasure
Pleasure Machines
Mill’s Rule Utilitarianism
Weak Rule Utilitarianism
Mill & Bentham
Mill on Happiness
Higher and Lower Pleasures
Act or Rule?
Confusions – Mill
Situation Ethics – Christian Relativism
Origins of Agape in the New Testament
Four Working Principles
Six Fundamental Principles
Active or Passive
Legal Position
Sanctity of Life – Bible
Sanctity of Life – Ethical Theories
Quality of Life – Situation Ethics
Arguments Against Euthanasia
Business Ethics
Codes – Kant’s Duty
Future Generations
Ethics in Year 2 (Spec. sections 4-6)
The Ethics Toolkit Revisited
Cognitive or Non-Cognitive
The Naturalistic Fallacy
The Open Question
Moore’s Intuitionism
Evaluation of Intuitionism
Utilitarian Naturalists
Ayer’s Emotivism (“Expressivism”)
Evaluation – Ayer
Absolutism & Relativism
C.L. Stevenson’s Emotivism
R.M.Hare’s Prescriptivism
Evaluation – Prescriptivism
The Legacy of David Hume
Possible Future Questions
The Psychology of Conscience – Freud (Background)
Freudian Revolution
Oedipus Complex
Evaluation – Psychological Approaches

Table of Contents 3

A Theology of Conscience – Aquinas
Synderesis and Conscience
Vincible and Invincible Ignorance
Joseph Butler – Innate Conscience Guided by Reason
Evaluation – Butler
Authoritarian Conscience – Eric Fromm
The Humanistic Conscience
Key Confusions
Sexual Ethics
Issues Surrounding Sexual Ethics
Sex & Evolution
Kinsey & the Sexual Revolution
Christian Views on Sex
Natural Law
The Negative Strain – Theology of the Fall
Catholic Teaching Today
Evaluation – Catholic View
Situation Ethics – Christian Relativism
Evaluation – Situation Ethics (Christian Relativism)
Homosexual Acts – a Test Case
Kant on Sex
Evaluation of Kant
Utilitarianism – Balancing the Positive and the Negative
Evaluation – Mill
Key Confusions
Christian Thought H573/3
Augustine – Human Nature
Human Relationships Pre and Post-Fall
Original Sin – Effects on the Human Will & Society
Augustine and Pelagius
Human Selfishness & Free Will
Lack of Stability & Corruption in Human Societies
God’s Grace
Death and the Afterlife
Christian Teaching on Heaven, Hell and Purgatory
Ideas about the Kingdom Taught by Jesus
Eschatological Teaching
Hell – Different Ideas
Dante’s Vision
Catholic Teaching on Purgatory
Hick – The Intermediary State
Election – Who Will Be Saved?
Limited Election
Unlimited Election
Universalist Belief (Apokatastasis – Restoration)
Election and Predestination
Single and Double Predestination
Thomas Aquinas and Catholicism
Parable of Sheep & Goats (Matthew 25)
Knowledge of God
Natural Knowledge of God’s Existence as Innate Sense
Sensus Divinitatis
Innate Knowledge
Sense of Beauty & Moral Goodness
Human Intellectual Ability to Reflect on & Recognise God’s Existence
Natural Knowledge in the Order of Creation
Revealed Knowledge of God’s Existence
The Fall and Human Finiteness
Revealed Knowledge of God’s Existence in Jesus Christ
Consider: can God be known by non-Christians?
The Bible and the Life of the Church
Q. What is the Barth/Brunner Debate?
Person of Jesus Christ
Jesus of History and the Christ of Faith
1. E.P. Sanders
2. Rudolph Bultmann
3. Black Messiah – James Cone
Jesus Christ’s Authority as Son of God
1. Son of God and Messiah (Mark 6:47-52; John 9:1-41)
2. Christology from Above
3. Christology from Below
4. Did Jesus Think He Was Son of God?
5. Miracles do not necessarily indicate Jesus’ Divinity
6. Birth and Incarnation
Some Heretical Views
Miracles as Signs of Salvation
1. Redemption and Creation Miracles
2. Resurrection as Miracle
3. Doubting Thomas
Jesus as Moral Teacher
1. The Living Word (John 1)
2. Jesus’ Moral Teaching
3. Forgiveness and Repentance
4. Personal Responsibility
Jesus as Liberator
Some Key Authors
Liberator of the Marginalised
Christian Moral Principles
Hermeneutic (Interpretation) Factors
The Bible as Sole Authority for Ethics
Literalism – Is It Realistic?

Table of Contents 4

Bible Church & Reason
Ethical Heteronomy – Roman Catholicism
Thomas Aquinas’ Natural Law
Magisterium – Roman Catholic
Veritatis Splendor (Splendour of Truth)
Liberation Theology
Conscience & Tradition
Criticisms of the Bible, Faith & Reason
Agape Love is All
Applied to Euthanasia
Christian Moral Action
Duty to God & the State
Responsibility to the State
Obedience, Leadership & Doing God’s Will
Justification for Civil Disobedience
Civil Disobedience – Examples
Church – Community & Discipline
The Confessing Church
The Cost of Discipleship
Bonhoeffer’s teaching on Ethics as action
Costly Grace
Sacrifice & Suffering
Religious Pluralism and Theology
Christian Teaching on Exclusivism
Christian Teaching on Inclusivism
Christian Teaching on Pluralism
Challenges to Pluralism
Supporting Hick
Opposing Hick
How Was Hick Influenced by Kant?
Religious Pluralism and Society
The Development of Multi-Faith Societies
Example – Migration
Responses to Inter-faith Dialogue
David Ford: The Future of Christian Theology
Catholic Church – Redemptoris Missio (Mission of the Redeemer)
Church of England – Sharing the Gospel of Salvation
The Scriptural Reasoning Movement
Cambridge Inter-faith Forum
Key Quotations
The Challenge of Secularism
The Rise of Secularism and Secularisation
Difficulty in Defining Secularism
Sigmund Freud
Supported by Hume
Wish Fulfilment
Challenges to Freud
Richard Dawkins – Programmatic Secularism
Example- Philomena Lee
Responses to Dawkins – Alister McGrath
The Dawkins Delusion
Secular Humanism – Christian Belief is Personal
Two Types of Secularism
Education and Schools
Government and State
Objections to the Secularisation Model
Liberation Theology and Marx
Marx’s Teaching on Alienation and Exploitation
What does this look like?
Liberation Theology’s Use of Marx and Social Sin
Liberation Theology’s Teaching on “Preferential Option for the Poor’
Gender and Society
Gender – Essentialist or Existentialist
Exploitation and Power (Michael Foucault)
Gender as a Fluid Concept – Judith Butler (Gender Trouble)
Gender and Women’s Liberation
The Changing idea of Family
Christian views on Gender Roles
Augustine on Gender Roles
Aquinas on Gender Roles
Luther (1483-1536) on Gender Roles
Modern Church on Gender Roles – Catholic, Liberal Protestant (USA)
Christian Views on Social Changes
Christian Teaching – the Bible
Ephesians 5:22-33
Christian Teaching- Roman Catholic Mulieris Dignitatem (MD)
Gender and Theology
Hermeneutics of Suspicion
Ruether’s Hermeneutic
Ruether’s God-Concept
Can a Male Saviour Save?
The New Age and the Eschatological Community
Criticisms of Ruether
Mary Daly – Radical Feminism
The Myths that Bolster Patriarchy
The Patriarchal God
Myth of the Feminine
The Scapegoat Christ
A Fall into the Sacred
Criticisms of Daly
The Night Before the Exam
Read every question and highlight key words
Sketch out your thesis/ key questions about the question
Be bold in your answer
Analyse, don’t just assert
Illustrate your argument
What is the examiner looking for?

OCR Religious Studies Revision Guide H573 1/2/3

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